Boris Georgievich Rotov (so his named in the world) was born on October 15, 1929 in the village of Frolovo of the Coilbral district of the Ryazan region. His father, Georgy Ivanovich, worked as an engineer-land surveyor in the Ryazan provincial land administration, mother, Elizabeth Mikhailovna, nee Zion, was a priest's daughter, worked as a teacher.
Boris from early childhood was passionate about the religion: Grandmother and mother Elizabeth Mikhailovna played a significant role in the formation of the Christian Consciousness of the Son.
In the third grade Rotov became a pioneer. Father fought at the fronts of the Soviet-Finnish war in 1939-1940, as well as in 1941, he again turned out to be in the trenches.
In 1947, graduating from high school, the young man entered the Ryazan Pedagogical Institute at the Faculty of Natural Science. But he soon secretly accepted the monastic posture with the help of the Archbishop of Yaroslavl and Rostov Dmitry (Gradusov). After the second year, he left his studies in the Pedic Institute and on November 20, 1949 was ordained in Hieromona, having received the appointment of the christmas christmas in the village of Davydov Tolbukhinsky district of the Yaroslavl Region. In spiritual life, he received a name Nicodemus. (Drevo-info.ru 2020)
In essence, the Lord Dmitry (degrees) began to change his sites in the first pairs.
Then he served as the second priest of the Pokrovsky Temple in Pereslavl-Zalessky. In 1950 - the abbot of the temple in honor of St. Tsarevich Dimitrius in Uglich, the renunal of the Uglich district. In 1952 - cleric of the Cathedral of the Feodor Council in Yaroslavl and the secretary of the Yaroslavl diocesan government. Keywords of the cathedral.
Since 1954, the acting abbot of the cathedral.
In 1955, Boris Rotov graduated from the Leningrad Spiritual Seminaria and the Leningrad Spiritual Academy in absentia.
In 1959, he received the title of Candidate of theology for the course essay "History of the Russian Spiritual Mission in Jerusalem."
From 1956 he was appointed a member of the Russian spiritual mission in Jerusalem. Deputy Head, and then the head of the mission. In 1957 - Igumen, Archimandrite. (Drevo-info.ru 2020)
Work in OVCS. Start of interfaith activities
In 1959, Rotov began to head the office of the Moscow Patriarchate and the deputy chairman of the department of external church interchanges.
In 1960 - Bishop Podolsky, Vicar of the Moscow Diocese. In the same year - Bishop Yaroslavsky.
His maintenance was subordinate to the detention in Hungary and Finland. In the same year, he is appointed by the Chairman of the OSDS (until 1972). (Mitrokhin 2004, 177).
On April 16, 1960, Chairman of the Russian Orthodox Church Council at the Council of Ministers of the USSR Vladimir Kuroyedov and Chairman of the USSR State Security Committee, Alexander Shelepin, sent a note to the Central Committee of the CPSU, in which, with reference to information from the AGENT sources of the KGB, was offered to take away Metropolitan Nicholas from participation In the work of the World Council of Peace, the Soviet Committee for the Protection of the Peace and to remove it from leadership in the Moscow Patriarchate. In addition, the note said: the KGB would consider it appropriate to the position of chairman of the external church relations department to appoint Archimandrite Nikodim Rotov and nominate him as a representative of the Russian Orthodox Church to participate in the activities of the World Council of Peace and the Soviet Committee for the Protection of the World. (Drevo-info.ru 2020)
In the same 1960, a member of the Sacred Synod Commission on Interchristian Relations, Chairman of the Publishing Department (until 1963). Chairman of the editorial board of the collector "Theological Proceedings" (until 1967).
This period includes his first trip to Western Europe: with the delegation of Orthodox clergymen Rotov goes to the UK. (Vasiliy (Krivoshein) 1978)
Member of the Prommunist "Christian Peace Conference" (HMK) (since 1960). The I-V of the All-Russian peaceful congresses of Rotov headed the delegation of the Russian Orthodox Church. Metropolitan Nicodemus was a consistent member of the HMK Working Committee, Vice-President, Chairman of the Collegium of Vice-Presidents, Chairman of the Committee to continue the work of the HMK and, finally, was elected president at the 4th All-In 1971, and in 1978 - Honorary President HMK.
Since 1961, Metropolitan Nicodemia becomes a permanent member of the Holy Synod. In the same year erected in the San Archbishop. (Drevo-info.ru 2020)
Metropolitan Nicodem was headed by the delegation of the Russian Orthodox Church in unmarried meetings 1961, 1963, 1964 and 1968. Appointed Chairman of the Special Commission of theologian, who was developing the development of the one for the Holy and Grand Cathedral of the Orthodox Church (Sorokin 2008).
The initiator of the entry of the Russian Orthodox Church in the WTS. At an extraordinary bishop cathedral on July 18, 1961, he made a report on the need and timeliness of the ROC entry into HCC. The entry agreement was achieved during the negotiations Metropolitan Nicodemus with the GSC HTS HTS VSISH Huft in 1960-1961. On the 3rd Assembly of the WTS in New Delhi in November-December 1961, the Russian Orthodox Church was adopted as members of the WTS, and Rotov was elected a member of the Central Committee.
For 3, 4 and 5 Assemblies, the WTS Vladyka headed the delegation of the Russian Orthodox Church. From 1961 to 1975, he consisted of a member of the Central and Executive Committees of the WTS. In 1975, at the 5th Assembly, Nairobi was elected one of the presidents of the WTS. (Drevo-info.ru 2020)
In 1963, it becomes the chairman of the Sacred Synod Commission on Christian Unity. Erected in San Metropolitan - Metropolitan Minsk and Belarusian, and soon behind the Leningrad and Ladoga. Since 1967 - Metropolitan Leningrad and Novgorod.
Participant of the World Conference under the auspices of the WTS "Church and Society" (Geneva, 1966). At the conference, Metropolitan Nicodemus made a report "Dialogue with Roman Catholics about modern Christian social thought." As a result, in December 1967, the first interviews were held between Roman Catholics and representatives of the Russian Church, which continued and subsequently. (Vydrin 2009)
Important links for research
On August 23, 1961, Bishop Tallinn, Alexey Ridiger (the future Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia, Alexy II) was erected in San Archimandrite Metropolitan Nicodem. Rotov also made him the deputy head of the OSDS. (Avgustin (Nikitin) 2008, 173) (Bychkov 1999)
In addition to Ridigra, Metropolitan's assistants were Bishops Philaret (Vakhromyev, future Metropolitan Minsk and Slutsky, Patriarchal Exarch, All Belarus) and Juvenali (Porkov, Future Metropolitan Krutitsky and Kolomensky).
Since 1962, Alexander Lvovich Kazze-Beck occupies the post of translator and curator of the Catholic Direction of the activities of the ACS. Upon returning to the Soviet Union in 1956, Kazze-Beck has been restored in reign and decided to engage in journalism. But the work of Kazze-Bek in the "literary newspaper" was not satisfied with a number of leaders of the Soviet media (namely, Ilya Ehrenburg). Journalistic activity at the time went aside, and Kazze-Beck came to the Moscow Patriarchate. Alexander Lvovich met Patriarch Alexy I, communicated with Metropolitan Nikolai (Yarushevich). Having taught the position in OVDS, Nicodemus began to pay attention to communication with the Vatican. Kazzene was well acquainted with Vatican affairs. In 1962 he took the position of senior consultant to OVDS. In 1971, Kazze-Beck on the Local Cathedral of the Russian Orthodox Church complained to Archbishop Brussels Vasily (Krivoshein) on the fact that he was not allowed to go abroad and even in the Cochangerian countries.(Avgustin (Nikitin) 2008, 150-152).
It is likely that indirectly Zurab Chavchavadze (Kazze-Bek's nephew) was familiar with Metropolitan Nicodemus. (Massip 2010, 582) At the funeral of his uncle in 1977, Zurab could get acquainted with a number of high-ranking spiritual persons. Bishop Vyborg Kirill (Gundyaev) was served by Alexander Lvovich. (Massip 2010, 652)
Actually, through the cazze, Zurab was familiar with Mudyugin, and with Alexey Ridiger. (Massip 2010)
Archbishop Mikhail (Muudyugin) Since 1961, he became a student of the Spiritual Academy and with him established a contact Metropolitan Nicodemus.
In 1966, Rotov convinced Mudyugina to accept the Episcopian San and appointed him by the Rector of the Leningrad Spiritual Seminary and the Spiritual Academy.(Kostromin 2012, 5)
Personal assistant to the rector of the Leningrad Spiritual Academy of Vladyka Nicodema (since 1965), and after and its rector (since 1974) - Metropolitan Kirill (Vladimir Gundyaev, the future Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Kirill). Together with Nicodemus drove into foreign trips from OVDS (for example, to Geneva from 1973 to 1978) (Avgustin (Nikitin) 2008, 169).
Also in November 1976, Kirill was appointed at the request of Nicodemus Deputy for the Western European Exarkhat Bishop Vyborg Kirill. (Vydrin 2009)
Peak Church Career
At the same time, Metropolitan Nicodemus communicated with the bright representatives of the Russian Orthodox Church abroad. Archbishop Brussels and Belgian Vasily (Krivoshein) left his memories of meetings with the Rotovy in the 60s-7th year. In 1964, he gets acquainted from the then by the protochire of the Serbian Church of Vasily (in the world - Rodzianko Vladimir Mikhailovich, grandson of the Chairman of the State Duma Mikhail Rodzianko).
According to the stories of Archbishop Vasily, Western hierarchs often mixed, and sometimes even confused by the "Providet" statements of Nicodemia (Vasiliy (Krivoshein) 1978).
It should be noted that Metropolitan Nicodemus was one of the main organizers of the institution in 1970. The so-called "American Autochetal Church" (a modernist corporation led by the father Alexander Shmeman, Ivan Meyendorf and Archbishop John Shakhovsky). As a rule, these were representatives of famous Beloeamigrant families.(drevo-info.ru 2020)
The rapid church career of Metropolitan Nicodema was possible "with the permission" of state security bodies.
An employee of the publishing units of the Moscow Patriarchate and the head of the Patriarch Patriarch Alexy II Evgeny Komarov wrote:
"Nicodemus spoke to priests openly:" Want to write a report? Write! Working with them (KGB), you can make more useful for the church. " We emphasize: it was not for the sake of money, benefits or own good - it was for the sake of the church. Patriarch Alexy II often repeated: "Speak about" cooperation "from the KGB. But cooperation implies common goals. And this was not. Objectives were opposite. "
Trading with the state bodies, Nicodemus achieved the maximum, which could be obtained in those conditions for the church. He actively communicated with foreign churches: Thanks to him, the world Christian community learned that in the USSR there are believing people and survived the church. " (Komarov 2020)
Nicodemus was Chairman of the Preparatory Committee "Conference of followers of all religions in the USSR for cooperation and peace between nations" (1969) and led the work of the conference. Metropolitan was a member of the Board of the Union of Soviet societies of friendship and cultural communications with foreign countries, a member of the Soviet Committee for European Security and Cooperation, a member of the Soviet Committee of Asia and Africa. He participated in the "Assembly of Public Forces for Security and Cooperation in Europe" (Brussels, 1972). (drevo-info.ru 2020)
In 1970, he defended his master's thesis in the Moscow spiritual academy about Pope John XXIII. (Safonov 2009)
The goal of his work Metropolitan Nicodemus was formulated as follows: the deep conviction of the author in the exclusiveness of the historical role of Pope John XXII prompted him to take the pen and highlight the activity of this charter of the Roman Church. Russian Orthodoxy keeps a good memories of this hierarch, but the life of a peacemaker's pope, peacemaker in the broadest sense of the word, is known for relatively few. Therefore, we assumed work, without creating panechnik, if possible, objectively recreate the appearance of this outstanding person, a Christian, the servant of Christ, the Primate of the Roman Catholic Church. In 1975, the LDA Council appropriated the degree of Doctor of theology "Honoris Kause". In recent years, Rotov began in LDA to the systematic reading of lectures on the history of the Russian Orthodox Church of the Newest Period. (Vydrin 2009)
At the suggestion of Vladyka Nicodemus, the Local Cathedral of the Russian Orthodox Church of 1971 "abolished" the oaths imposed on the Moscow Cathedrals of 1656 and 1667. On the Raskolnikov-Old Believers.
The initiator of the entry into the Russian Orthodox Church to the modernist youth movement of Syndesmos (1971). With his participation, the Leningrad and Moscow Spiritual Academy, as well as the Leningrad, Moscow and Odessa spiritual seminary, became full members of Syndesmos. (Safonov 2009)
In 1974, he was appointed by the Patriarch Exarch of Western Europe.
The initiator and active participant of numerous ecumenical contacts by the Evangelical Church of Germany, with the Union of Evangelical Churches GDR, with the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, with the churches of the Anglican confession. (drevo-info.ru 2020)
The initiator of direct contacts with the leadership of the Roman Catholic Church. M.N. Directly participated in resolving the issue of the presence of representatives of the Russian Church at the second Vatican Cathedral. During the confidential meeting in August 1962, in Paris Rotov with an employee of the "Secretariat to promote Christian Unity" (Head-Cardinal Bea) Johannes Willebrands found out that the Kremlin could agree to the presence of observers of the Russian Orthodox Church at the second Vatican Cathedral, if the Vatican He was able to ensure that this cathedral will not become an anti-Soviet forum. September 27 - October 2, Johannes Willebrands officially visited Moscow, where on September 30, he was present in the Church of Peter and Paul in Lefortovo for the Liturgy, which was performed by Archbishop Nicodemus; On October 10, the Holy Synod decided to accept the invitation of the Vatican to send observers. As part of the delegation: Archim. Vladimir (Kotlyarov) and about. Vitaly Borovy.(Vydrin 2009)
Participant of personal meetings with Pope Paul Vi. In particular, on September 15, 1963, Rotov inflicted a visit to the courtesy of His Holiness Pope Paul VI, who accepted him in a private audience ... laid flowers on the grave of Pope John XXIII and committed a lithium about his soul's rest.
In December 1965, at the invitation of Cardinal Bea, attended the closing ceremony of the Second Vatican Cathedral.
On December 16, 1969, the Holy Synod, at the proposal of Metropolitan, Nicodemus, made a decision: "We had a judgment about various cases, when the Old Believers and Catholics are treated in the Orthodox Church for committing the holy saints. Decided: in order of explanation to clarify that in cases where the Old Believers and Catholics turn to the Orthodox Church for the execution of holy sacraments over them, it is not reborn. " (drevo-info.ru 2020)
Archbishop Vasily (Krivoshein) argues: in Rome, Metropolitan, Nicodemus became widely, more or less without parsing to see Catholics for Orthodox Liturgy.(Vasiliy (Krivoshein) 1978)
Supported wide contacts with unce figures. In particular, M.N. Invited in the USSR in 1969. The last uniate "Russian" Exarcha Andrei Katkova. Katkov reported the Uniate Congress in 1970: in the Spiritual Academy of Leningrad, I had to attend the opening of the school year. After the prayer of Vladyka, Nicodemus said the Word of Old and New Students about the meaning of Christian unity. At the end of the prayer, he asked me to bless the beginners who were more than sixty. (Vydrin 2009)
At the invitation of Nicodema, the USSR has repeatedly visited the rector of "Russicum" Pavel Maye. In October 1969, Vladyka served the bishop liturgy in the Church of the Russicum. Mayeh argued in 1970 that Rotov presented the Uniate Church of the Large, wonderful letter to the icon of the Kazan Mother of God. Saying goodbye to us, at the airfield, left the Russicum his beautiful metropolitan gown and at the same time said: "I leave you the most valuable thing that I brought you from Russia."
Especially close contacts with Metropolitan were Nicodemus with Mikhail Arranian, Jesuit, the Russian Worker and the Vice-Rector of the Russicum. In the beginning. 70s. Arranz together with Rotov prepared Russian translation of rank Mass.(drevo-info.ru 2020)
Metropolitan Nicodem was also met with the Uniate priest John Chrysostom Blashkevich. According to some information, shortly before the death of Rotov met with the head of Ukrainian uniats by Joseph Slip.
Active participant of the so-called "struggle for peace", i.e. Pacified Soviet propaganda in order to weaken the Western threat. The ideologist "Mirology".
On August 7, 1978, at a meeting of the Sacred Synod, it was decided to send a delegation to the burial of Pope Paul VI. The head of the delegation was appointed Metropolitan Nicodemus on August 9, the Rotov arrived in Rome and on August 10, the coffin of Pavel Vi committed a pane. On Saturday, August 12, together with representatives of other local Orthodox and nonsense churches, attended the funeral of Pope Paul VI.
On September 3, together with representatives of other churches, I was present at the intronization of Pope John Paul I. Died on September 5 in Rome at the reception at Pope John Paul I. According to the post in ZMMP, Dad read low prayers and prayer for sins. Secretary of State Cardinal John Villa arrived and also made a prayer at the body of the well-honored Metropolitan. (Vydrin 2009)